Levosimendan in Cardiac Surgery

The following scientific publication list provides references for many of the trials, meta-analyses, and review articles that have evaluated the use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery.

While the following reference list is not intended to be a complete list of publications regarding the use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery, we believe the following list represents the vast majority of such publications. The publications are listed chronologically by year.

  1. Pisano, Antonio, Giacomo Monti, and Giovanni Landoni. “Levosimendan: new indications and evidence for reduction in perioperative mortality?.” Current opinion in anaesthesiology (2016).
  2. Zhou, Chenghui, et al. “Levosimendan for prevention of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases 67.3 (2016): 408-416.
  3. Anastasiadis, Kyriakos, et al. “Effectiveness of prophylactic levosimendan in patients with impaired left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized pilot study.” Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (2016): ivw213.
  4. JUHL‐OLSEN, P., et al. “Effects of levosimendan in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy undergoing aortic valve replacement.” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 59.1 (2015): 65-77.
  5. Toller, W., et al. “Preoperative and perioperative use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery: European expert opinion.” International journal of cardiology 184 (2015): 323-336.
  6. Greco, T., et al. “A Bayesian network meta-analysis on the effect of inodilatory agents on mortality.” British journal of anaesthesia (2015): aeu446.
  7. Lim, Ju Yong, et al. “Levosimendan Reduces Mortality in Adults with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis.” Journal of cardiac surgery 30.7 (2015): 547-554.
  8. Malik, Vishwas, et al. “Effect of levosimendan on diastolic function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a comparative study.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 66.2 (2015): 141-147.
  9. Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca, et al. “A Randomized Blinded Study of the Left Ventricular Myocardial Performance Index Comparing Epinephrine to Levosimendan following Cardiopulmonary Bypass.” PloS one 10.12 (2015): e0143315.
  10. Sahin, Veysel, et al. “Evaluation of Myocardial Contractility Determination with Tissue Tracking Echocardiography after Levosimendan Infusion in Patients with Poor Left Ventricular Function and Hemodynamics.” The heart surgery forum. Vol. 17. No. 6. Carden Jennings Publishing Co, 2014.
  11. Baysal, Ayse, et al. “Levosimendan Improves Renal Outcome in Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Trial.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia (2014).
  12. Shah, B., et al. “Study of levosimendan during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with LV dysfunction: A double-blind randomized study.” Indian journal of pharmacology 46.1 (2014): 29.
  13. Erb, Joachim, et al. “Influence of levosimendan on organ dysfunction in patients with severely reduced left ventricular function undergoing cardiac surgery.” Journal of International Medical Research (2014):
  14. Guerrero, Orriach Jose L., et al. “Preoperative Levosimendan. A New Way For Organoprotection.” Current pharmaceutical design (2014).
  15. Knezevic, Ivan, et al. “The effects of levosimendan on renal function early after heart transplantation: results from a pilot randomized trial.” Clinical transplantation (2014).
  16. Bragadottir, G et al.. “Effects of levosimendan on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption and oxygenation after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled study.” Crit Care Med 41 (2013): 2328-2335. October 2013
  17. Alvarez, J., et al. “A comparison of dobutamine and levosimendan on hepatic blood flow in patients with a low cardiac output state after cardiac surgery: a randomised controlled study.” Anaesthesia and intensive care 41.6 (2013): 719-727
  18. Sharma, Pranav, et al. “Preoperative levosimendan in ischemic mitral valve repair.” Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals (2013): 0218492313499352.
  19. Gandham, Ravikumar, et al. “A comparison of hemodynamic effects of levosimendan and dobutamine in patients undergoing mitral valve repair/replacement for severe mitral stenosis.” Annals of cardiac anaesthesia 16.1 (2013): 11. January 2013
  20. Ersoy, Ozgur, et al. “Effectiveness of prophylactic levosimendan in high-risk valve surgery patients.” Cardiovascular journal of Africa 24.7 (2013): 260. October 2013
  21. Harrison, Robert W., et al. “Effect of Levosimendan on Survival and Adverse Events After Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-analysis.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 27.6 (2013): 1224-1232.
  22. Toller, Wolfgang, et al. “Perioperative use of levosimendan: Best practice in operative settings.” J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth (2013).
  23. Gamal, T. Saad. “Evaluating the Prophylactic use of Levosimendan Versus Milrinone in Open Heart Surgery Patients with Myocardial Dysfunction.” (2012).
  24. Ristikankare, Anne, et al. “Effects of levosimendan on renal function in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery.” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 26.4 (2012): 591-595.
  25. Levin, Ricardo, et al. “Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.” Experimental & Clinical Cardiology 17.3 (2012): 125.
  26. Pellicer, Adelina, et al. “Phase 1 study of two inodilators in neonates undergoing cardiovascular surgery.” Pediatric research 73.1 (2012): 95-103.
  27. Lechner, Evelyn, et al. “Levosimendan versus milrinone in neonates and infants after corrective open-heart surgery: A pilot study.” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 13.5 (2012): 542-548.
  28. Ricci, Zaccaria, et al. “Levosimendan infusion in newborns after corrective surgery for congenital heart disease: randomized controlled trial.” Intensive care medicine 38.7 (2012): 1198-1204.
  29. Landoni, Giovanni, et al. “Effects of levosimendan on mortality and hospitalization. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies*.” Critical care medicine 40.2 (2012): 634-646.
  30. Lahtinen, Pasi, et al. “Levosimendan reduces heart failure after cardiac surgery: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial*.” Critical care medicine 39.10 (2011): 2263-2270.
  31. Lomivorotov, Vladimir V., et al. “Levosimendan vs. intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk cardiac surgery.” Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals 19.2 (2011): 154-159.
  32. Severi, Luca, et al. “Levosimendan versus intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk cardiac surgery patients.” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 25.4 (2011): 632-636.
  33. Leppikangas, H., et al. “Preoperative levosimendan infusion in combined aortic valve and coronary bypass surgery.” British journal of anaesthesia 106.3 (2011): 298-304.
  34. Momeni, Mona, et al. “Levosimendan in congenital cardiac surgery: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 25.3 (2011): 419-424.
  35. Maharaj, Ritesh, and Victoria Metaxa. “Levosimendan and mortality after coronary revascularisation: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.” Critical Care 15.3 (2011): R140.
  36. Landoni, Giovanni, et al. “Reducing mortality in cardiac surgery with levosimendan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 24.1 (2010): 51-57.
  37. Garisto, Cristiana, et al. “Initial single-center experience with levosimendan infusion for perioperative management of univentricular heart with ductal-dependent systemic circulation.” World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery 1.3 (2010): 292-299.
  38. Eriksson, Heidi I., et al. “Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function.” The Annals of thoracic surgery 87.2 (2009): 448-454.
  39. Tritapepe, L., et al. “Levosimendan pre-treatment improves outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery†.” British journal of anaesthesia 102.2 (2009): 198-204.
  40. Zangrillo, Alberto, et al. “Levosimendan reduces cardiac troponin release after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 23.4 (2009): 474-478.
  41. Brezina, Ales, Hynek Riha, and Jan Pirk. “Prophylactic application of levosimendan in cardiac surgical patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction.” Experimental & Clinical Cardiology 14.2 (2009): e31.
  42. Kolseth, Solveig Moss, et al. “Prophylactic treatment with levosimendan: a retrospective matched-control study of patients with reduced left ventricular function.” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 36.6 (2009): 1024-1030.
  43. Levin, Ricardo L., et al. “The calcium sensitizer levosimendan gives superior results to dobutamine in postoperative low cardiac output syndrome.” Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) 61.5 (2008): 471-479
  44. Järvelä, Kati, et al. “Levosimendan in aortic valve surgery: cardiac performance and recovery.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 22.5 (2008): 693-698.
  45. Pérez Vela, José L., et al. “Levosimendan for postoperative ventricular dysfunction following heart transplantation.” Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) 61.5 (2008): 534-539.
  46. Lehmann, A., et al. “Levosimendan in patients with acute myocardial ischaemia undergoing emergency surgical revascularization.” European journal of anaesthesiology 25.3 (2008): 224-229.
  47. De Hert, Stefan G., et al. “The effects of levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients with poor left ventricular function.” Anesthesia & Analgesia 104.4 (2007): 766-773.
  48. Tasouli, Androniki, et al. “Efficacy and safety of perioperative infusion of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac function undergoing open-heart surgery: importance of early use.” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 32.4 (2007): 629-633.
  49. Malliotakis, et al. “Haemodynamic effects of levosimendan for low cardiac output after cardiac surgery: a case series.” Hellenic J Cardiol 48.2 (2007): 80-88.
  50. Tritapepe, L., et al. “Preconditioning effects of levosimendan in coronary artery bypass grafting—a pilot study.” British journal of anaesthesia 96.6 (2006): 694-700.
  51. Al-Shawaf, Emad, et al. “Levosimendan or milrinone in the type 2 diabetic patient with low ejection fraction undergoing elective coronary artery surgery.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 20.3 (2006): 353-357.
  52. Álvarez, Julián, et al. “Hemodynamic effects of levosimendan compared with dobutamine in patients with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.” Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) 59.4 (2006): 338-345.
  53. Egan, Jonathan R., et al. “Levosimendan for low cardiac output: a pediatric experience.” Journal of intensive care medicine 21.3 (2006): 183-187.
  54. Tokuda, Yoshiyuki, et al. “Levosimendan for patients with impaired left ventricular function undergoing cardiac surgery.” Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 5.3 (2006): 322-326.
  55. Álvarez, J., et al. “Efectos hemodinámicos del levosimendan en el postoperatorio de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca.” Rev. Esp. Anestesiol. Reanim 52.7 (2005): 389-394.
  56. Husedzinovic, et al “Levosimendan as a new strategy during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.” Croat Med J 46.6 (2005): 950-956.
  57. Siirilä-Waris, Krista, Raili Suojaranta-Ylinen, and Veli-Pekka Harjola. “Levosimendan in cardiac surgery.” Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 19.3 (2005): 345-349.
  58. Barisin, Stjepan, et al. “Levosimendan in off-pump coronary artery bypass: a four-times masked controlled study.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 44.6 (2004): 703-708.
  59. Labriola, C., et al. “Hemodynamic effects of levosimendan in patients with low-output heart failure after cardiac surgery.” International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 42.4 (2004): 204-211.
  60. Turanlahti, Maila, et al. “Pharmacokinetics of levosimendan in pediatric patients evaluated for cardiac surgery.” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 5.5 (2004): 457-462.
  61. Nijhawan, Niraj, et al. “Levosimendan enhances cardiac performance after cardiopulmonary bypass: a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 34.2 (1999): 219-228.
  62. Lilleberg, Jyrki, et al. “Effects of a new calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, on haemodynamics, coronary blood flow and myocardial substrate utilization early after coronary artery bypass grafting.” European heart journal 19.4 (1998): 660-668.